Mr. Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson is a former Prime Minister and President of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and was one of the most experienced parliamentarians in the Caribbean region.
Mr. Robinson attended the Castara Methodist School where his father, James A. Robinson was headmaster. From there he was the first Bowles Scholar to Bishop's High School, Tobago, in 1939, and later the first House Scholarship winner from Bishop's High School in 1942. As a candidate for island scholarship from Bishop's High School in 1944 and 1945, Mr. Robinson obtained the Higher School Certificate in both years with Distinction in Latin.
Continuing his studies in Tobago, Mr. Robinson gained admission to the Bachelor of Laws Degree of London University as an external student in 1949. In 1951, he left for the United Kingdom where he gained admission to the Inner Temple and passed the bar final examinations in 1953. That same year he was admitted to St. John's College, Oxford, where he obtained a good Second Class Honours Degree in two years in Philosophy, Politics and Economics.
Mr. Robinson was admitted to practice as a Barrister-at-Law in Trinidad and Tobago in 1955 and was in the Chambers of Sir Courtney Hannays from 1957 to 1961. He was elected to the Federal Parliament in 1958 and to the Trinidad and Tobago Parliament as representative for Tobago in 1961.
Mr. Robinson was a representative of Trinidad and Tobago on the Council of the University of the West Indies and a director of Trinidad and Tobago's Industrial Development Corporation. He served as the first Minister of Finance of this country after Independence and later as Minister of External Affairs. He has been a consultant to the United Nations Secretary-General on crime and the abuse of power.
Mr. Robinson was a director of the Foundation for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court for over 15 years. He was the first Chairman of the (restored) Tobago House of Assembly and founder-member of the National Alliance for Reconstruction of Trinidad and Tobago, which he led to victory in the elections of 1986 when he became Prime Minister until December 1991.
He was the representative of the constituency of Tobago East in the Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago.
As Minister of Finance from 1961-1967, Mr. Robinson was responsible for the restructuring of the country's financial institutions and the reform of financial and monetary policy on the achievement of independence by Trinidad and Tobago. Later, from 1986-1989, in the same capacity, and as Prime Minister, Robinson was responsible for the economic and financial measures that brought economic improvement to his country after a seven-year period of progressive decline. From 1976-1986 he led the struggle for decentralization and devolution of authority to Tobago.
As Prime Minister, Mr. Robinson was responsible for several regional initiatives, including the Caribbean Regional Economic Conference, the proposed Caribbean Court of Appeal and the West Indian Commission chaired by Sir Shridath Ramplal, former Secretary-General of the Commonwealth. He has represented Trinidad and Tobago at many international conferences and at the United Nations where he has been acknowledged as a leading proponent of an International Criminal Jurisdiction.
Mr. Robinson served as President of the Republic from 1997 to 2003. Mr. Robinson's tenure as President could be characterized as extremely challenging. He was called upon to decide which political party would form the Government after the election results produced a deadlock of 18 seats for the two main political parties.
Mr. Robinson had a Master of Arts of St. John's College, Oxford, in Philosophy, Politics and Economics, Bachelor of Laws of London University, Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple, London and Senior Counsel. He held an Honorary Degree of Civil Laws from the Obafemi Awolowo University in Nigeria. He was an Honorary Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, and had been a visiting scholar to the Harvard Law School.
In 1987 Mr. Robinson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Honour from California Lutheran University. On a state visit to Nigeria in 1991 he was made Chief of Ile Ife by the Ooni of Ife.
Mr. Robinson was also awarded a Knighthood of Honour and of Merit by an Ecumenical Foundation of the Knights of St. Johns for "exceptional achievements and unselfish support of humanity." He was a Freeman of the cities of Los Angeles and Thousand Oaks and held Venezuela's highest award - the Simon Bolivar Award.
In November 1993, he was co-opted as Vice-Chair of the International Council of the United Nations affiliated body "Parliamentarians for Global Action" which has a membership of over 900 Parliamentarians from 75 countries around the world.
Mr. Robinson was the holder of two international awards: The Distinguished International Criminal Law Award of 1977 and the Distinguished Human Development Award of 1983. He was the author of The New Frontier and the New Africa, and The Mechanics of Independence; the latter published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, USA. He co-authored the article on Trinidad and Tobago in the Encyclopedia Britannica and has published numerous articles and addresses.
Mr. Robinson wasmarried to Patricia Jean nee Rawlins, MA (Columbia) in economics and had two children, David and Ann-Margaret.
His hobbies were reading, walking, swimming and music.
Mr. Robinson passed away in 2014
Source: National Heritage Library
Professor George Maxwell Richards served as President of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago between 2003 and 2013.
Professor Richards was Professor Emeritus in Chemical Engineering at the Department of Engineering, The University of the West Indies and was the first President of the Republic who was not an Attorney-at-Law.
He was born in San Fernando in 1931 and received his primary education there before winning a Government Exhibition to Queen's Royal College in Port of Spain.
From May 1950 to September 1951 he was a staff trainee (Exploration, Production and Refining) at United British Oilfields of Trinidad Ltd.
From 1957 to 1965, Professor Richards held a number of managerial posts at Shell Trinidad Ltd., and then joined the University of the West Indies as a Senior Lecturer in Chemical Engineering.
In October 1970, he was appointed Professor of Chemical Engineering. He also held the post of Deputy Principal and Pro-Vice Chancellor from August 1980 to May 1985.
Professor Richards became Acting Principal in October 1984 and held this post until May 1985, when he was appointed Principal and Pro Vice Chancellor. He held this position until November 1996.
Professor Richards has served on the board of a number of local companies, including the Trinidad Publishing Company, TRINTOC, and the National Gas Company, and has also served on the boards of several service organizations, including the National Training Board (Chairman), the National Advisory Council and the Institute of Marine Affairs (Chairman).
He was also a member of several professional societies, including the Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago, the Institute of Chemical Engineers (London), the Institute of Petroleum (London); the Royal Society of Chemistry (London).
He received the Chaconia Medal of the Order of the Trinity - Class1 (Gold) for Public Service.
Professor Richards was married with two children. He passed away on January 8, 2018.
His Excellency Anthony Thomas Aquinas Carmona was born in the tiny coastal village of Los Charros, Palo Seco, on March 7, 1953 to Dennis Stephen and Barbara Carmona.